Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

Above article from www.appropedia.org

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Take a Different Strategy and Keep it in Strict Confidence

A company should not take the same strategy taken by the competitor in business. Sun Tzu wrote “The Arts of War” about 500 B.C. in China and insisted the importance of the strategy to defeat the weak while avoiding a battle against the strong. In most cases, however, a company plays safe and follows its bigger competitor using the same strategy. It intentionally or unintentionally ignores the factors that make the strategy of the competitor successful and presumes that the strategy taken by the competitor will also be effective to it without careful consideration. As a result, it unknowingly attempts to attack on the strength of the competitor.

It is important to know that specific products of each company make its strategy work well. Not only visible products, such as equipment and apparatus, but also invisible products, such as technological strength, sales forces, developmental power, and service capability, vary with the company. In the subprime lending disaster, you can say that every company involved took the same strategy seeking big profits and fell into an abyss together. It is an honor for a company to have its strategy imitated by another company, but the competitor’s strategy is the worse strategy for a company that imitates it. Any strategy does not work as soon as it is known to your competitor.

Japan provoked a reckless war against the U.S. without notice in 1941, and it was knocked into smithereens in 1945. Putting aside the fact that Japan had no chance of winning in terms of military strength, it is important to know that the U.S. mostly knew Japanese strategies beforehand because they were too much faithful to the textbook. During the age of provincial wars in Japan (1467-1615), warlords worked out their own strategies and fought against their enemies with the strategy full of originality. The greatest warlord is Nobunaga Oda (1534-1582), and both Hideyoshi Toyotomi (1536-1598) and Ieyasu Tokugawa (1542-1616) are his students. It is striking to know that none of the three warlords shared the same strategy.

During World War II, headquarters of the Imperial Japanese Army was staffed only with the bright graduates from the military academy. They all were too faithful to the textbook to construct a strategy full of originality. In addition, they were too proud and gentlemanly. A high-raking official in the headquarters reportedly told “It is not gentlemanly to sneak a look at strategies that the U.S. keeps in strict confidence.”

Different Strategies For Affiliate Marketing Online

Considering yourself as a great resource for your business online is a great start, but there are other strengths and abilities together with different strategies for Affiliate Marketing that you must implement online, in order to provide value to your audience in your niche.

Affiliate Marketing is attracting a huge number of people coming online to earn an income that may end up replacing their day job. If you are interested in this model of business online, you probably may like to know that it is one of the easiest ways to earn money online.

Because there are so many people taking up Affiliate Marketing, you need to position yourself differently from the rest of the marketers out there on the internet. This way you can get a better following from your prospects when they see you being unique and authentic providing great value to them.

For differentiating yourself as an affiliate, there are a number of things that you must do in order to outwit the competition and become the super marketer that attracts many subscribers and buyers for the products you promote.

What happens when so many affiliates promote the same product or program? If you want to succeed and rise above the rest, being different and providing greater value than them will help you in attaining more followers and sales.

As I said at the beginning of this post evaluating yourself is the very first thing to do in your quest to do Affiliate Marketing. Then, from there, you look for the areas that complement your qualities as a marketer. You are going to take account of your assets, tools in progress, ideas and projects to implement several streams of income to maximize your revenue.

As you may realize, having only one income stream can be very risky, so it is in your best interests to create different income streams. These could be done out of the skills that you have already; for instance, if you are good at writing, you could implement an email marketing campaign to build your list of subscribers.

This can be done by setting up an auto-responder campaign to attract subscriber’s names and email addresses, and then deliver to them a lot of value and establish a relationship to generate the ‘know, like and trust’ status. In time, out of this relationship, you can begin creating revenue for your business.

The campaign through your auto-responder, is about a series of follow-up messages that you write for your subscribers to receive at intervals of time that you decide. One day apart, two days apart or whatever period you decide is best for your prospects.

Your prospects are sent first of all to a ‘capture page’ that you create or that you get done for you, with the only option for your prospects to do, which is to give you their name and email address in return for something of value that you give them free. This could be an eBook, a video, a short training course or a review.

One thing to notice here is that many affiliates operate simply by sending prospects to the sales’ page of the vendor and for you to be different now is to have your own capture page to ‘squeeze’ their details so they became ‘your subscribers’. This way you start differentiating yourself from the other affiliates.

If you are good at audio or video creation, these skills can earn you big money when you make video sales’ pages to promote the products and services of your niche. On the other hand, if you could create your own products, this alone would put you in a different platform as an online marketer.

Another strategy to differentiate yourself from other affiliates is to have your own website, from where you not only have them opting in, but also offering them other products and services to help them further. Your customers will then be able to come back to your website for further information or to simply buy more products and services.

Imagine when they find in your site products they can not find in other websites, you then become special, a distinguished affiliate marketer that is a leader in your niche. Remember that in order to fully promote a product that you did not create, it is always best to buy the product yourself or, failing that, at least get a sample sent to you as an affiliate, from the vendor so you can study and review it and then recommend to your customers in a more ethical way.

There are also great affiliate marketing networks out there that you can promote to earn 100 % commissions. Websites like Empower Network which have a tremendous following in the market place right now, that have a blogging platform ready for you to use, when you join for $25.00/month.

Another powerful affiliate network is Pure Leverage which, again, pays you 100 % commissions and has a great blogging platform, a comprehensive tools suite and super marketing training, all for the grand total of $25/month. Superb value I hear you say.

Anyway this assures you that not all the eggs are in one basket, so to speak, and your streams of revenue are being diversified all the time. Finally, if you do some of the things suggested above, you are bound to get better results in Affiliate Marketing.

To your success

German Calvo.

Discover The Different Strategies Of Art Lessons

Would you like to find out more about art classes before you decide to devote your university years to this course? Of course, you do since art classes in secondary school are absolutely not the same as a college course. That’s why should consistently research on your program in order to help you to assess if this is actually what you want. The very last thing you need is to waste two years of your college life and realize your major is not for you.

This article is going to help you to discover the different strategies of art courses. You are probably informed about the basic art classes from your child years and your adolescent years. However, if you took these type of lessons from exclusive establishments for an extracurricular activity, odds are you might be far more educated in arts than your classmates at school. In these private establishments, pupils or little Picassos are actually taught an in-depth comprehension as well as specialized skill instruction of the arts. A normal tutorial consists of a few aspects, and is not just a chance to figure out how to draw as well as paint.

Here are four fundamental art lessons which you’ll have to take in order to pursue an art major in college.

Art Project – Art activities in college are assigned to demonstrate the topic of just what you’ve acquired regarding the arts right from the start up until the present. For example, pointillism is a method of painting in which small, distinct dots of pure color are utilized in patterns in order to form an image. A famed pointillism artist is Charles Angrand, you are going to learn a lot more about him in college.

Art Appreciation – Art appreciation entails the language of art. You will gain knowledge exactly how to recognize techniques as well as characteristics that painters use in their work. To absolutely understand art, you should have the understanding of the movements that comprise the history of art, like Impressionism and Pop Art.

Art History – Art history is known as a class that goes together with art appreciation. It will involve familiarity with well-known artists as well as their lives. You are going to gain knowledge about the history of art, how to comprehend how the past has impacted the present, and the influence that subsequent painters have had on the art world. Art history is generally taught while introducing strategies to pupils.

Art Activities – Art activities are very important when learning and practicing specific skills to complete your art activity. An example of an activity is blind contour drawing, wherein you are going to draw without taking a look at or watching your hands while you draw. With practice in this method and numerous others, you are going to learn theory regarding the idea of “line”.

Now that you know more about art lessons in college, you really should have an idea if this is what you would like to pursue. Remember: art classes in secondary school is very different from classes in college. If you sense that you need additional information on art courses, it’s a lot easier to do research on the internet.

Different Strategies in Internet-Based Marketing

The large volume of online businesses and advertisements make it seem hard to imagine that e-commerce is relatively very young. Many of the current online platforms that are popularly used by marketers are less than ten years in existence.

For example, Facebook was only launched in 2004 as a campus-based social network. Within eight years, Facebook users increased to almost one billion users from a few hundreds when it was launched. The great advertising potential of this social networking platform raked in multi-billion profits for the company. It also made the founder, Mark Zuckerberg richer by US$ 9.4 billion. The platform also continues to help bring significant profits for many small businesses online.

It is now estimated that more than US$ 200 billion is being spent on online marketing. The amount is expected to steadily increase as competition becomes tougher. Virtually all companies, large or small, are vying for attention online. Securing a place in the search engine results page is a very valuable strategy. It can determine the difference between success and failure, between profitability and bankruptcy. This is especially true for startup enterprises that are highly dependent on online presence.

Just like offline or traditional marketing strategies, online marketing strategies have the same three basic purposes. These are initiating pubic awareness, creating desire, and prompting consumers to act. Listed below are the main categories of online marketing.

Display advertising – This is perhaps the most visible type of online marketing. It is straightforward but oftentimes expensive. Just like traditional offline banner or billboard ads, display advertising online relies on graphic design, words or slogans, and proper placement. These can be prominently and strategically placed on various websites so that they can be seen by large number of internet users. These banners range from simple text boxes to animated ads. All of them have clickable links that lead to the company websites being promoted.

Search engine marketing or SEM – This type of marketing is actually a comprehensive strategy that may incorporate other strategies online. The main purpose of this strategy is to improve the ranking of a website when displayed in the result pages of search engines. The use of contextual advertising based on specific keywords or keyword phrases are commonly utilized. Oftentimes it involves paid advertising in the search engine websites. Pay per click advertisements are commonly used. Extensive search engine optimization techniques are also implemented.

Search engine optimization or SEO – As part of the SEM strategy, SEO techniques focus on natural or algorithmic search results that are not based on paid advertisements. Articles with specific keywords are commonly used to improve ‘organic’ search results. Several web 2.0 platforms such as blogs are also utilized for this purpose.

Social media marketing – As mentioned earlier, this type of marketing strategy utilizes the convenience of various social media networks such as Facebook and Twitter. This strategy often targets specific demographics and implements viral techniques.

Email marketing – Email is perhaps the oldest form of online marketing. It is very effective when used strategically. However, the abuse of this direct marketing approach is oftentimes associated with spamming and scams.

Referral marketing – Otherwise known as tell-a-friend approach is basically a word of mouth strategy that can utilize emails, social networks, forums and chatting to spread the word. It relies on social influence in a close-knit group of friends or acquaintances. Satisfied customers have the tendency to refer their friends.

Affiliate marketing – Very few marketing strategies offer opportunities for third-party endorsers and even customers to earn. This strategy works by attracting those who are interested to earn extra cash by serving as affiliate partners or agents. It simply involves putting a link or advertisement on a website of a participant. The affiliate gets paid certain percentage per referral who is converted into customer or client. Hence, this is an incentive-based marketing strategy.

Inbound marketing – Offering e-books, online services and software applications for free seems counter-intuitive. Nonetheless, it is very effective when done properly. It is all about titillating prospective clients or customers in trying specific products for free but on limited conditions. This strategy aims at establishing a loyal clientele base.

Video marketing – Many people mainly use the internet for entertainment purposes. One of the simplest strategies to attract the attention of online users is through videos that are directly or indirectly connected to specific products or websites. Oftentimes, popular amateur but viral videos are useplace advertisements.

Different Strategies For Being More Motivated

Have you ever had that time you just needed a way to get through a day or just get given the piece of information you need that fits with you? We have all been in a place where we just want to be uplifted and move on from our present state, we do not want to be that negative, down unhappy person. We are trying hard to make everyday a day for us. Another wonderful day fill of opportunity.

We are all so different it is no wonder then that our answers are all different. Deep inside ourselves we find a way to get in touch and get motivated.

For one person motivation could be that perfect song that cheers you up on your off day, for another it could be holding a new born baby. It could be listening to your favorite audio or sitting reading a great book. The list of motivators goes on and on, no way is wrong nor in the same breath right.

When you are seeking the motivation you need in your life, evaluate what lifts your mood already what gives you a cheerful day. Look upon your greatest day and feel it. Feel what it was that helped you get there.

What is for one, is not perhaps the next persons motivation no one is to judge what is going to help another.

It is a bit like saying we all will bring up our children exactly the same way, it just does not go that way as we are all from different backgrounds, cultures, religions, ways of life and we all are so different yet unique & beautiful in our own ways.

To find your motivator is to think of your perspective which would be different for each individual. It could be a day that went well, what happened in that day? Think of what you have done differently perhaps to start that day? Think of what it was that made you smile What was it that made you laugh? What was that feel good moment? Special occasion? Achievement, success, reaching a goal.

Now that you have found your Motivator, tune into what you need to be motivated. Did you need a day that was organized? Did you need a good nights sleep? Was it that you had no issues crop up or is it you just felt them differently.

Now that you have analyzed what you did, what you needed, go and rinse and repeat and fill your days with more of what gets you tuned into what makes you feel good. If you can take away any of the parts that got you down or perhaps think of them differently you are in charge of your motivation.

It could apply to a business day, a mothers day at home, a retired person enjoying their retirement or just a young person doing a normal school day.

You are in charge of your motivation, fill your life with what you need, only you know what is your motivator only you have the answer.

Forex Automoney – The Different Strategies Offered by This Signal Service

As one of the premier signal services in the world, Forex Automoney has quickly grown in popularity and their indicactors are used by thousands of people from many countries.  As part of their membership benefits, the company has developed 3 trading strategies which help people receive signals that are right for their specific trading style.  This customization option has helped many people trade successfully but some have become confused by the different strategies and which one would be best for them.

Today we are going to help you determine which of Forex Automoney’s strategies you should use.

1.) Intraday

Intraday is a strategy that is best for full time traders. Since the signals usually come in more than once per day, it’s best to utilize this technique on days when you have more time on your hands to spend trding Forex.

2.) Daily

The daily strategy can be equally used by full time and part time traders alike. While this strategy suits full time traders because of it’s flexibility, it also suits full time traders because the signals are still delivered everyday.

3.) Weekly

This strategy is best for part time or casual traders with wider spreads. Trading based on weekly signals takes much less time and the traders often open longer.

When trading, always remember that, although Forex Automoney is a very accurate signal service, you have to follow their signals in order to maximize profit and diminish your chances of  loss. Try not to close a trade early or exit if you feel you have lost money, wait for the signal as real time profit draw downs  are an inherent aspect of trading in the Forex market, regardless of what system you are using.

Target EMarketing – Today’s Different Strategies

Target internet marketing is accomplished using a variety of media types and each needs different strategies. Today’s internet is so full of product eBooks, coaches, and video courses that you really need to have some effective marketing knowledge and to develop a slight edge. Putting these pieces of you marketing plan together will not only help build your list, but be a great benefit to grow your internet business.

To achieve this goal, you’ll need to know where you want to go, and how to get there. So unless you are an advertising professional, targeted internet marketing may be a new skill you will need to learn. And especially if you are completely new to internet marketing, you must understand that each type of media will require a willingness to learn, applying the new skills, and testing the market repeatedly.

By doing some research you can learn what your targeted market wants to know or needs. Join a couple of forums, ask some questions, and gather information. When you keep these answers in mind you will undoubtedly come up with an effective internet marketing plan. You may have the best product available, but if you can’t get the word out, you simply don’t stand a chance making an online income.

These are just a few marketing techniques, with a little helpful information to get you started.

CLASSIFIED AD MARKETING:

Marketing with online classified ads is very popular because it is cost effective (many offer free ad placement) and it does work. They work as long as they have all the correct, informative parts, and are placed where your prospective customers search for the specific items they are looking for, which is what you have to offer. Before you get started with classified ad marketing, you want to make sure you get it right the first time. Nobody, not even ad writing professionals, can put together a money making classified ad in minutes and nobody gets it perfect on their first try. Keep in mind that you will want to create several variations of each ad that are well written, full of valuable content, attract attention, and give them a desire to click through.

ARTICLE MARKETING:

Article marketing is also a good source to use for your targeted niche. Writing articles is actually easier than you think. Generally they need to be at least 400 words, and by doing some targeted research it is easy to come up with ideas. And each time you learn something new, whether it is a review of a product or a new found area of your market, you can write an article on what you learned. As for articles, you might not see an immediate market reaction, but think about it. Every article submitted and accepted will be available for many years, and every article has a specific topic that will be viewed by someone somewhere that is looking for what you have to offer.

SOCIAL MEDIA MARKETING:

Social media marketing is a more broad type of marketing than searching for the specific customers that want your product. Because of the “social” aspect of sites, such as Twitter, Facebook, and LinkdIn, you will start out with your specific niche market, but in a more relaxed back yard barbeque atmosphere. However, remember your followers will have followers, and any one of them may be looking for the same thing. Don’t forget, word of mouth or even word of website, is the best form of advertising, period.

Keep in mind that basic marketing concepts are the same whether it is online or offline marketing. Learning the different ways to use your marketing tactics and strategies are what will drive more traffic to your website. And learning the different marketing techniques will bring the results you’re looking for.

Information On Different Strategies Involved In Stock Option Trading

The stock market is a brilliant place to improve your earnings and to multiply your savings. There are a number of investments that you can make to help you earn a lot of money. Stock options or equity options are a type of investment that connects you directly to the asset or business. In big corporations, senior employees are given the choice to invest in the company itself. This investment is in the form of stock options.

Because these are like any other kind of investment there are a number of different strategies that can be implemented to get good profits. The risk spectrum for this kind of trading strategies is covered completely to appeal to the most conservative to the most daring. In the end what you need to decide is which kind of investor you want to be – one who wants to hedge the investments made or one who is ready to speculate and take high risks. But whichever type of investor you want to be, it all comes down to profits. That is the ultimate goal really. To make profits what you need to do is to monitor the ups and downs of the stock market and choose a strategy that is devised to match the condition of the market.

These strategies or tactics are categorized into 4 major groups that will work on different types of markets –

• Vertical Spread – in this tactic you buy and sell the stocks at various strike prices in various contract months. The trading is done such that the risk of one stock is offset in the other.
• Ratio Spread – in this tactic short and long securities are bought in imbalanced numbers. This inequality in the numbers helps to offset the risk.
• Delta Spread – in this approach the deltas of the options are taken into account. The delta of the stock bought is divided by the delta of the stock written and a neutral position is acquired.
• Credit Spread – in this approach the stock that is sold is in a position close to the market and the stock that is bought is in a position further away. In this approach both the positions are in the same direction.

There are also variants of some of these tactics, each breaking down to make it easier for you to make your desired profits. The plethora of strategies in this kind of trading makes the stock option trading the most sophisticated investment method.

Poker Sit and Go Report: Every Table is Different and Requires a Different Strategy

You may have heard that playing in single table sit and go tournaments requires due patience to wait for solid starting hands. The concept here is that when you do get a big hand – that is when you are going to double up, thus working your way into the money.

If you have played any more than a few sit and go tournaments, you must surely be aware that the above scenario rarely works out to the point where you can consistently make money. If you have one implied overall strategy for all sit and go tables, you will be leaving money on many of those tables for your competitors.

Each sit and go table has its own persona and chemical make-up unlike any other. You could even have the exact same players, sitting in the exact same position at two different tables, and have a remarkably different jive and outcome.

This all begs the question of how to adjust and take into account these different factors. In consequence, it is still prudent to play conservatively during the early rounds, but consider this quiet time as your profiling session. Some software, like  can help you with this but you can speed things up as well, by carefully watching each hand, and the hole cards of your opponents. You can do this by checking the hand history, but holdem indicator actually retrieves that information for you automatically.

If you see one player limping in early position with J8s, then calling a late position raiser, you have a fair idea immediately, that he is an elephant or maybe even a monkey. If by the 3rd hand in you have AJos in late position, and the board shows 2h Js 6c and you are heads up against that same player, there is simply no need to be patient here, I would run him to the river trying to get as many of his chips as possible. In this case, a blanket, one-size-fits-all strategy would have cost you opportunity chips as you wouldn’t even have even come in with a hand like AJos in the early rounds.

This doesn’t mean you have to completely abandon a tight strategy, but it does mean that you must use the early rounds to identify opportunities. Opportunities can arise in a number of ways besides hand strength. Where position and profiling are considered, your timing is critical, but the early stages often present cheap flop situations with hands like suited connectors, Ace and King X suited, and 2 paint cards.

When playing hands like these, you should be in late position or at an obvious tight table, and the flop should work well for you. Most importantly, you need the inner strength and patience to get away from the marginal hands in the early stages of a tournament. So getting in cheap is one thing, getting out cheap is quite another. The point here is, keep your options open and look for opportunities outside of any strict formula you have been following.